دکتر محمد رضا ابراهیمی ( متخصص روانشناس- روانکاو )
 نوشته ها و مقالات و مطالب علمی و تخصصی در زمینه روانشناسی بالینی و مباحث مرتبط
جمعه 8 اردیبهشت‌ماه سال 1385
What is Psychoanalysis?



People seek psychotherapy for different reasons. Sometimes they want to solve a specific problem produced by difficult circumstances; sometimes they want relief from feelings of general unhappiness and anxiety; other times they want to make a change, to feel less stuck, less depressed and more hopeful.

Asking for help is the first important step. It gives substance to our desire for change and makes concrete our wish to feel better. This very act of asking says that we feel entitled to support and serious consideration.

This brochure was written to educate people about one specific kind of psychotherapy - psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is a unique therapeutic approach to people and their feelings. Only when you gain some understanding of the special advantages of this approach - and the commitment it requires - can you decide if psychoanalysis is for you.


Psychoanalysis, developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud in Vienna in the early 20th Century, was both a revolutionary way of understanding human emotions and of helping people with their psychological problems. He helped the world understand that the "rational" adult who functions more or less successfully in the "real world" is only a part of the total person. Under the rational self is the unconscious self and Freud was able to demonstrate the powerful influence that unconscious feelings and thoughts had on the health of his patients.

Psychoanalysis is the process by which the unconscious is made conscious and the "truth" about ourselves is uncovered and accepted so that psychological healing and psychic growth can occur.

"Psychoanalysis helped me be happier, less likely to act out my anger or depression. I finally understood my own self-destructive patterns and why I had been so helpless to change them for so many years. Finally, l think I can be myself and get what I need to make me happy."

Gradually, over the last half century Americans have become at least superficially acquainted with psychoanalysis, but paradoxically, the very familiarity we have with the popular symbols of psychoanalysis - the couch, dreams and free association - obscures the fact that many people still don't know how it works or why one might want to choose it over other types of psychotherapy.

Although we may have read Freud, seen images of the analyst in films and heard what people have said about their own "analysis," we still may not know what actually goes on in psychoanalysis and why it is considered the most challenging form of therapy.

What is Unique to Psychoanalysis?

Psychoanalysis differs from other psychotherapies in its focus, depth and method. Other therapies help you solve particular problems. In psychoanalysis, specific problems are viewed in the context of the whole person. The quest for selfknowledge is the most important key to changing attitudes and behavior.

Of course, the patient comes to therapy because he'or she is in some sort of emotional pain. Initially the goal may be relief from uncomfortable feelings, frustration, depression, anxiety, confusion, or physical pain. As the treatment unfolds and you come to understand yourself better, you will begin to experience more freedom to live your life as you wish, without disabling symptoms, and with more pleasure.

"I was always a very frightened person and never thought I'd have the courage to go so deeply into my past. But, it wasn't as traumatic as I feared."

Psychoanalysis is based on the insight that our adult personalities are the result of many developmental st`ages; at any stage, the way we have reacted to events in our lives may have caused us to get "stuck." Of course we do "grow up." But we carry within the aspect of ourselves that "got stuck" that didn't have a chance to develop; we can have an adult exterior, and be functioning more or less successfully, but internally we may feel vulnerable, confused, depressed, angry, afraid etc. We may not feel able to bounce back from rejection, get past blocks, allow our real feelings to surface, or stay in touch with our desires.

Psychoanalysts believe that what happens first to the infant and then to the child shapes the way we see the world, the kind of relationships we form, the way we feel about ourselves in relation to others and the needs we seek to have fulfilled. Through the process of psychoanalysis we can dive deep into that past to re-experience and re-examine the formative and sometimes painful experiences we have had. It helps us come to terms with the relationships we had during the growing up years-both the good and the bad.

Psychoanalysis is designed to help you get in touch with your unconscious, the memories, feelings and desires that are not readily available to your conscious mind; it is designed to help you understand how your unconscious feelings and thoughts affect the way you act and react, think and feel today. As a result of this process you are enabled to act more effectively on your own behalf.

The Talking Cure

Psychoanalysis has been called the "talking cure" because change is made possible simply by talking with the analyst about all of our feelings, experiences and dreams. (Many analysts stress that it is the experience of the relationship between the patient and analyst itself that is crucial to the cure.")

People in analysis talk about everything: their current problems or concerns, their work, their relationships, their feelings, their childhood, their parents, their adolescent years, or whatever seems important to them at the moment. They find, by doing so, that they learn more about the sources of their current dilemmas, and how to make their lives better. By telling your story, in your own way, in your own time, and in your own words, to someone who knows how to listen and give new meaning back to you, you learn to hear yourself in a new way.

"Nobody had really ever listened to me before, so it was a big relief when someone I respected, my analyst, wanted to know what I thought and felt."

The psychoanalyst is not judgmental and takes seriously whatever the patient talks about. People are encouraged to say what is on their minds without censorship or self-criticism. Free association, as it is called, is fundamental to a successful analysis.

Traditionally, the patient in analysis lies on a couch with the analyst seated behind. Not facing the analyst, a person may experience a new degree of spontaneity and freedom, and be more fully in touch with his or her deeper feelings and thoughts. Of course, whatever is said in the analyst's office is held in the strictest confidence.

Psychoanalysis provides a safe place for you to discover and tell yourself the truth. It will give you a unique opportunity to re-experience your personal history, see it in a new way and make connections between past and current conflicts that illuminate your situation and enable you to change. That process is educational as well as therapeutic.

The Role of The Patient

Some people compare psychoanalysis to an advanced course of study in which you are both the investigator and the object of investigation. Psychoanalysis encourages patients to take a major role in their own treatment, to work as partners with their analysts. The patient's only responsibility is to come to each session and bring up everything that comes to mind, including wishes and fears, memories and experiences, dreams and dilemmas. Of course, this is not always easy. As you feel more secure about your relationship with your analyst, comfort and trust grow and speaking your mind becomes easier to do.

"I'd never been able to get where I wanted in life but after a stormy analysis I realized my feelings about my father have been invisibly running my life. Now that I understand how that works, I can move on."

Psychoanalysis moves along according to the pace you set for it, you go as far and deep as you are ready to. But when you have difficulty in being honest with yourself and open with your analyst, you both can stop and look at that and, together, figure out the reasons for your reticence.

You also will be encouraged to talk about feelings that come up about your treatment or about your analyst. These feelings are important because elements of one's earliest affections and hostilities toward parents and siblings are often shifted on to the analyst. This phenomenon, known as transference, offers a rich source of understanding, for it enables you to re-experience and re-work important feelings from the past with the maturity of the present. As you work through old conflicts and put them to rest, you grow as a person.

For example, you may feel your analyst is being too critical about what you are saying. When you discuss this with the analyst, you may learn that you always feel that way about people seen as "authorities" and that your perception may be colored by expectations created in childhood.

The Role of the Psychoanalyst

The analyst acts as your guide as you explore your inner life. Together you examine your ideals, expectations, hopes and desires as well as your feelings of guilt, shame, doubt or despair. She or he aims to create an environment of safety so you can unfold your authentic self without fear of judgement or the pressure to please.

"I had a very chaotic life. This is the first time it makes sense to me."

Analysts are carefully trained to facilitate your exploration so that you are free to reflect on your experiences and your reactions to the process of psychoanalysis. The analyst is there for you; to listen, clarify, unravel, connect and help you remember and interpret what is unclear, problematic, or deceptively simple. To be helpful to their patients, analysts must be both empathic and objective. Analysts will not judge, tell you what to do, or let the focus shift from you to their own lives or problems. Contrary to stubborn stereotypes, they do speak, respond, ask questions and volunteer insights.

A very special relationship between the analyst and patient develops over time and through the dialogue in which both participate. It becomes a powerful alliance with the shared goal of change and greater understanding for the patient. This confidential relationship, central to psychoanalysis, is unlike any other relationship you will have.

The Analyst's Training

In order to qualify to treat people, the psychoanalyst has gone through his or her own analysis, in addition to other training, such as classes, supervision, etc. Analysts are the only psychotherapists for whom a personal analysis is an absolute requirement.

The importance of this training cannot be overemphasized. It typically lasts at least six years. Most analysts have completed other academic training before they begin this course of study. They are mature, experienced and fully professional before they see patients.

"I never thought l would be able to be a parent until I understood how my parents failed. Now I know that I don't have to repeat the mistakes they made. At the beginning I was in a rage, but finally I am able to understand and, forgive them and myself."

Psychoanalysts may or may not be physicians. Before 1945 most analysts were trained first in medicine and then as psychoanalysts. However, today, the majority of analysts have advanced degrees in psychology and social tvork while others come to analytic training from a variety of professional backgrounds: religion, nursing, counseling, the social sciences and the humanities.

Who Can Benefit from Psychoanalysis?

We have many stereotyped images of people who undertake psychoanalysis: we see them as middle-class, highlyverbal and very intellectual. In reality, anyone can benefit from psychoanalysis, and men and women of very different social groups, personality styles and backgrounds have chosen psychoanalysis. According to some analysts, psychological traits that can facilitate the analytic process include:


  • a capacity for reflection


  • a desire to understand the past


  • a problem-solving attitude


  • a curiosity about the meaning of things


  • a tolerance for vulnerability and painful feelings


  • an ability to observe and experience at the same time


  • a sense of humor


  • resilience under stress

Of course not everyone has all of these traits. Some people who have had successful analysis wouldn't have been able to identify with these traits at first. What is most important is the desire to take an honest look at yourself, and the desire to change.

Deciding on Analysis

When people consider whether or not to start psychoanalysis, they typically and reasonably want to know how much - how much time, how much money and how much stress. Here are some answers that you can use as guidelines to help you decide if psychoanalysis is for you.

"I am not a new person now but the person I am is the person I really like and that is very new. I realize that life will never be pain-free but l feel ready to take what it has to offer."


Psychoanalysis is not short-term therapy; it does take time to explore the complex layers of feeling and experience that make up your own unique history. People find that their analysis can extend for four, five or more years, but there is no prescribed length of treatment. When you feel you have accomplished what you wanted, you and your analyst can set a termination date.

Psychoanalytic exploration is never completely linear or predictable. You may discover "side" issues of great importance, or obstacles that slow you down. There may be times when you undo your own progress, because as much as you may want change, change is frightening too.

"I was in analysis for I4 years. When I started I was functioning very poorly. Over those years I overcame my problems so that I could do the "ordinary" things - take vacations, change jobs, get married. I don't think I lost time, I gained time."

Psychoanalysis demands an investment of time every week. In contrast to other therapies, psychoanalysis works best when you have three or four 45-50 minute sessions a week. The frequency allows you and your analyst time to fully explore topics without long breaks between sessions; it helps you focus and stay in touch with your feelings. While your analyst will try to accommodate the constraints of your work life and lifestyle, from time to time the scheduling of sessions can be inconvenient.


Since psychoanalysis demands an investment of time, it also calls for an investment of money. While psychoanalysis does not cost more per session than other forms of psychotherapy, there are more sessions over a a relatively long period of time. To make psychoanalysis affordable to everyone, most training institutes provide low-cost analysis. Both single and married people willing to re-order their spending priorities find they can afford it. However, no matter what the dollar amount is, any long-term additional expense makes a difference in one's budget and plans for the future. While we may spend great deal of money to escape our problems, few of us are accustomed to tackling personal problems with a financial commitment analysis can call for. Therefore, it is important to consider if you are willing to make adjustments in your lifestyle so you can include this new expense.


Finally, all people in analysis find that talking about what bothers them sometimes causes them to feel sad, anxious or irritable during or after their sessions. Some people are afraid that once they lift the lid on memories and feelings, they won't be able to function and will lose the stability they have fought hard to maintain. "I'm afraid if I get started crying, I won't be able to stop". In psychoanalysis, "lifting the lid" is an important part of the therapeutic process, but you don't ever have to do it alone; your analyst is there to help you through the "rocky times" so that you can finally have resolution and relief.

The Rewards of Analysis

For all that psychoanalysis demands in terms of time, cost and stress, these are far outweighed by its rewards, in the opinion of the great majority of those who choose and persevere in the process.

While in psychoanalysis, people typically find that both their personal relationships and their work lives improve. As they understand themselves and the people in their lives better, they can live more freely. As they resolve conflicts, they have more energy than before to do the things they really want to do. They waste less time, their days become fuller. Often they are better able to negotiate salary increases or go on to more rewarding careers.

"I've been on the couch for two years now and it's been an amazing experience. I never realized how many layers I contained and how complex the route to reaching them. Now, I understand why simple choices are never so simple."

People also find great relief in having a special, absolutely confidential relationship uninfluenced by other social, professional or familial ties. All of their feelings are dealt with and taken seriously by a skilled, compassionate analyst who is knowledgeable about emotional life. They are reassured by the fact that there is someone whose job it is to see that they don't get overwhelmed by their feelings or undone by the pressures they are under.

Psychoanalysis aims to help you experience life more deeply, enjoy more satisfying relationships, resolve painful conflicts and better integrate all the parts of your personality. Perhaps its greatest gift is the essential freedom to change and to continue to change.

جمعه 25 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
استرس و هیجان می تواند سلامت قلب را مورد هدف قرار دهد.


بر اساس مطالب زیر هر گونه فشار روانی می تواند مستقیما به آسیب های جدی قلبی منجر گردد. در مقاله زیر به زبان بسیار ساده چند راهکار برای تشخیص و اقدام در جهت ممانعت از چنین آسیبهایی ارائه شده است.مطالعه آن برای دانشجویان مفید می باشد.


APA Provides Tips for Mind/Body Health

WASHINGTON — Prevention is a key message during National Heart Health month, and the American Psychological Association (APA) today released strategies to help Americans manage stress.

Research shows that 20 percent of Americans are worried that stress will affect their health, yet 36 percent say they deal with stress by eating or drinking alcohol. While these behaviors may reduce stress in the short term, they contribute to an unhealthy lifestyle that can negatively affect your body and are proven risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

“Achieving a healthy lifestyle comes from adopting behaviors over time that help to manage stress in effective ways that don’t at the same time take a toll on your physical health and body,” says Russ Newman, Ph.D., J.D., APA executive director for professional practice.

Although heart disease is a serious condition that requires constant monitoring, there are many lifestyle and behavioral changes you can do to manage stress and reduce your risk for cardiovascular problems.

• Identify the sources of stress in your life and look for ways to reduce and manage them. Seeing a professional like a psychologist to learn to manage stress is helpful not only for preventing heart disease, but also for speeding recovery from heart attacks when used along with structured exercise programs and other intensive lifestyle changes.
• Talk to your doctor. No two people are alike, and some treatment or risk reduction strategies may be inappropriate or even harmful if you attempt to do too much too quickly.
• Avoid trying to fix every problem at once, if possible. Focus instead on changing one existing habit (e.g., eating habits, inactive lifestyle). Set a reasonable initial goal and work toward meeting it.
• Don't ignore the symptoms of depression. Feelings of sadness or emptiness, loss of interest in ordinary or pleasurable activities, reduced energy, and eating and sleep disorders are just a few of depression’s many warning signs. If they persist for more than two weeks, discuss these issues with your heart doctor. It may be that a psychologist working in collaboration with your physician would be beneficial.
• Enlist the support of friends, family, and work associates. Talk with them about your condition and what they can do to help. Social support is particularly critical for overcoming feelings of depression and isolation during recovery from a heart attack.
• If you feel overwhelmed by the challenge of managing the behaviors associated with heart disease, consult a qualified psychologist. He or she can help develop personal strategies for setting and achieving reasonable health improvement goals, as well as building on these successes to accomplish other more ambitious objectives. A psychologist can also help clarify the diagnosis of depression and work with the physician to devise a suitable treatment program.

For more information about mind/body health, heart disease and stress management, please contact Peter Wilson at (202) 336-5910 or visit APA’s Help Center at www.apahelpcenter.org. To download APA’s pre-packaged news segment on heart health or to capture mind/body health sound bites, please visit http://apahelpcenter.mediaroom.com.

جمعه 18 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
ازدواج و رضایت زناشویی


عنوان مقاله ای که مطالعه خواهید کرد این است :‌ازدواج هنگامی برای سلامت زنان مفید است که میزان رضایت زناشویی در آنها بالا باشد.

بر اساس این پژوهش جالب زنانی که  از ازدواجشان رضایت زیادی دارند سلامت روانی و رفتاری بدنی بالایی دارند و کمتر دچار بیماریهای خطرناک نظیر اختلالات عروقی  و قلبی می گردند. مطالعه این مقاله را به همه دانشجویان و علاقمندان توصیه می نمایم.




WASHINGTON — Women who are in satisfying marriages have a health advantage over unmarried women or those in unsatisfying marriages, according to a study published in the September issue of Health Psychology, a journal of the American Psychological Association (APA). The study, involving middle-aged women over a 13-year period, finds that women in good marriages were less likely to develop risk factors that lead to cardiovascular diseases compared with other middle-aged women.

Researchers from San Diego State University and the University of Pittsburgh compared cardiovascular risk profiles and trajectories of women who were married or living with a romantic partner and who had high relationship satisfaction with those of women with moderate or low relationship satisfaction and with those women who were single, divorced and widowed. Participants were 493 women (ages 42-50) from the University of Pittsburgh’s Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study that looked at health risk factors during and after menopause. Risk factors were measured during an average of more than five visits over 13-years. Each visit included a blood draw to measure cholesterol and glucose levels, blood pressure evaluation, body-size measurements and assessment of health behaviors (such as diet, smoking and exercise) and psychosocial characteristics (such as depression, anxiety, anger and stress).

Participants who were married or cohabitating completed a seven item marital quality questionnaire that assessed satisfaction with amount of time spent together, communication, sexual activity, agreement on financial matters and similarity of interests, lifestyle and temperament. The questionnaire was completed at the beginning of the study and during the three-year follow-up assessments.

Results indicate that women in marriages characterized by high levels of satisfaction showed a health advantage when compared with participants in marriages characterized by low levels of satisfaction and with unmarried participants (single, widowed or divorced). This included lower levels of biological and lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors – such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels and body mass index – and lower levels of psychosocial cardiovascular risk factors – such as depression, anxiety and anger. Those women in highly satisfying marriages also showed this same health advantage when compared with women in moderately satisfying marriages, but to a lesser extent.

How might being in a good marriage influence health? Previous research indicates several direct and indirect factors may be a work, according to the authors. Marriage itself may offer a health advantage by providing social support and protecting against the risks associated with social isolation. Also, spousal influence and involvement may encourage health-promoting behaviors and deter unhealthy behaviors. Married people, especially women, may also be at a health advantage relative to their unmarried counterparts through the increased availability of socioeconomic resources.

However, research shows poor marital quality may erase these health advantages, say the authors. Marital stress is associated with lifestyle risk factors and nonadherence to medical regimens. Poor marital quality is also linked with more depression, hostility and anger, all risk factors for coronary heart disease. Thus, marital status and quality could influence metabolic risk factors and acute stress responses, which in turn predict cardio-vascular morbidity and mortality, according to the study.

“For the most part, the higher risk groups seemed to maintain an elevated level or risk across the entire study, suggesting that by middle age, the cumulative influence of being single, divorced or widowed or of being in a distressed relationship had already occurred,” according to the researchers. Future research with younger couples may identify how and when women in distressed marriages and unmarried women develop higher risk cardiovascular profiles, they add.

جمعه 18 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
Both sexes seek attractiveness in one-night stand partners

Both sexes seek attractiveness in one-night stand partners
Print version: page 12

Looks may matter more than anything else to men and women when it comes to finding a partner for short-term sexual relationships, according to a study in the March Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 90, No. 3). The study, by Norman Li, PhD, of the University of Texas at Austin, and Douglas Kenrick, PhD, of Arizona State University, finds that although men and women differ in their willingness to participate in one-night stands, when they choose to, both genders prioritize looks in their partners.

The findings contrast with Li and Kenrick's previous finding that in the case of long-term mates, both sexes desire well-rounded mates, but women tend to prize status and men first seek out physically attractive mates.

Li and Kenrick ran five studies to explore short-term mate selection. In the first two, 394 heterosexual undergraduates designed their ideal short-term mate using "mate budgets" in which participants had varying amounts of "mate dollars" to assign to different characteristics, effectively forcing participants to rank the degree to which they seek characteristics such as "kindness," "physical attractiveness" and "social status" in a short-term mate. In both studies, men and women allocated more than double the portion of their budget for physical attractiveness than for any other characteristic or trait. However, when the students were asked if they would have a one-night stand or short-term relationship with the mate they created, men were much more willing to respond affirmatively.

In a follow-up study, the researchers asked participants to recall the last time they considered having casual sex and to rate the extent to which they were motivated by factors such as physical attraction, a desire for a long-term relationship with the partner or an effort to enhance their social reputation. Of the participants who had considered having casual sex, the highest-rated reason was "I was physically attracted to the person, and I thought it would feel good."

Although men and women are similarly motivated in choosing short-term sexual relationship partners, they differ in their willingness to actually engage in such relationships, the findings indicate. As a result, "Higher-quality men often hook up with lesser-quality, though reasonably attractive women," Li says.

The five studies, Li suggests, add to a growing body of research on gender similarities and differences in mate choices, as well as what people seek in mates for different levels of involvement, whether they are willing to consider such involvements and why those variations may exist.

In future studies, Li and his colleagues aim to investigate how people's standards for mates change over time.

دوشنبه 7 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
روانکاوی چیست؟


روانکاوی شیوه ای در جهت بررسی فرآیندهای روانی است که بوسیله سایر روشها امکانپذیر نمی باشد. این شیوه برای درمان اختلالات نوروتیک بکار می رود. در مقاله زیر شما به زبان ساده کاربرد روانکاوی و تکنیکها و ابزار مورد استفاده روانکاوان را به همراه تاریخچه کوتاهی از آن را مطالعه خواهید نمود.



What is Psychoanalysis

iconPsychoanalysis is a method for the investigation of mental processes, inaccessible by other means. At the same time psychoanalysis is also a therapeutic method for neurotic disorders.

Freud on Tabor street
Freud on Tabor Str
by Joachim Torr

As therapeutic technique, psychoanalysis is different from psychiatry and psychotherapy in general, as it stipulates the existence of a psychic unconscious, and insists on analysis and the integration of the unconscious as therapeutic procedure.

The psychoanalysis gradually built on clinical observation and research, accompanied by reflections and theoretical ideas concerning the structure of the psychic apparatus, the dynamic of mental processes, repression, resistance, transference, etc.

iconThe definition of psychoanalysis includes knowledge acquired from psychic unconscious research and analysis. Such knowledge has gradually made up a new body of science called psychoanalysis.

Psychoanalysis is also applied to the study of social, cultural, and religious phenomena. In this latter aspect, demanding for a re-evaluation of the mechanisms and meanings of culture, psychoanalysis has penetrated the consciousness of the wider public beyond its therapeutic limits.

Psychoanalysis was Born in Vienna

Psychoanalysis was born in Vienna by the end of the 19th century and spread with the contribution of Freudian disciples and dissidents, who, more or less loyal to Freudian theories, have issued currents and schools of psychoanalysis with various shades of difference. That is the case of analytic psychology forged by C. G. Jung, as well as that of individual psychology, made up by Alfred Adler.

Psychoanalysis together with elements of psychoanalytical doctrine and practice are also to be found in modern psychotherapeutic currents, under various shapes and blends.

Sigmund Freud on Psychoanalysis

"Psycho-analysis is the name (1) of a procedure for the investigation of mental processes which are almost inaccessible in any other way, (2) of a method (based upon that investigation) for the treatment of neurotic disorders and (3) of a collection of psychological information obtained along those lines, which is gradually being accumulated into a new scientific discipline." (From "Two Enciclopaedia Articles", 1923)

"Psycho-analysis may be said to have been born with the twentieth century; for the publication in which it emerged before the world as something new - my Interpretation of Dreams - bears the date '1900'. But, as may well be supposed, it did not drop from the skies ready-made. It had its starting-point in older ideas, which it developed further; it sprang from earlier suggestions, which it elaborated." (From "A Short Account of Psycho-Analysis", 1924)

"Freud […] made an alteration in their technique, by replacing hypnosis by the method of free association. He invented the term 'psycho-analysis'..." (From "Psycho-Analysis", 1926). AROPA

یکشنبه 6 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
نقش خانواده در فرآیند بزهکاری
آنچه در مقاله زیر مطالعه می کنید بررسی روانشناختی جالبی از فضای روابط کودک در خانواده که منجر به رفتارهای ناسازگارانه  می گردد را ارائه نموده که قابل توجه می باشد. این مقاله را با دقت بخوانید و در صورت داشتن سئوال برایم کامنت بگذارید.

New Research on Alienated Children
by Daniel H. Swerdlow-Freed, Ph.D.

(Daniel H. Swerdlow-Freed, Ph.D.is a Licensed Psychologist.
Contact information is available at the end of this article.)

Several years ago, our newsletter featured an article on parental alienation, in which we summarized Richard Gardner's proposition that parental alienation syndrome, or PAS, was a diagnosable disorder with distinct features. Over the past several years, his opinions have received much criticism and led mental health professionals to formulate research-based explanations of the dynamics that cause children to reject contact with a parent. On the basis of their research, Drs. Joan Kelly and Janet Johnston recently published a new theory of the alienated child, which we believe advances understanding of this complicated issue. Since this topic is of interest to so many of our readers, we are providing a summary of their paper. **

Kelly and Johnston define an alienated child as "…one who expresses, freely and persistently, unreasonable negative feelings and beliefs (such as anger, hatred, rejection, and/or fear) toward a parent that are significantly disproportionate to the child's actual experience with that parent." Their definition requires that the child's behavior toward and relationship with the alienated parent should be the primary focus, rather than the behavior of the alienating parent, as Gardner suggested. Furthermore, they note the importance of differentiating the alienated child from other children who resist contact with a parent for realistic or developmentally appropriate reasons.

This new formulation conceptualizes a child's relationship to each parent as falling along a continuum from positive to negative. At its most healthy end, a child enjoys a positive relationship with both parents and wants to spend approximately equal time with each of them. The next position is for children who have an affinity with one parent. These children feel closer to, and prefer to spend more time with one parent but desire substantial contact with the other parent.

Some children express a consistent preference for either their mother or father during the marriage, and have formed an alliance with that parent. Following separation or divorce, these children may desire limited contact with the non-preferred parent, although they do not completely rejecting this individual. Alliances often develop because of unhealthy dynamics that existed during the marriage, intense post-divorce conflict or children's moral assessment of their parent's behavior. Such alliances have the potential to become unhealthy, particularly if parental conflict continues at a high level. Two factors that distinguish allied from alienated children are that the former are willing to acknowledge positive feelings for the non-preferred parent, and they can articulate credible reasons for seeking reduced contact with that individual.

Children who have witnessed or been subjected to violence, abuse or neglect, are at increased risk to become estranged from the parent who perpetrated these acts, although their feelings about that parent may only be expressed after separation has occurred and a sense of safety has developed. A child may also become estranged from a parent who is extremely immature and self-centered, consistently unreliable or inadequate, or chronically angry, rigid or critical. While estranged children may present as if they are alienated, they differ from alienated children because their fear and anger have a basis in reality and their attitudes and behavior are in proportion to these experiences.

At the unhealthy end of the continuum is the alienated child, who completely rejects a parent without showing any guilt or ambivalence, and refuses all contact with that individual. Severe distortions and exaggerations often characterize the child's reports about the relationship with the rejected parent. Close scrutiny reveals that these youngsters are often responding to dynamics that occurred during the divorce process, to ill-advised parental behavior and to their own psychological vulnerabilities.

Using a systems framework, Kelly and Johnston identified a series of factors and child responses that are critical to accurate diagnosis and effective intervention. They determined that while risk factors vary from one case to another, they often contain the following components: a child who has become triangulated in the parental conflict, a spouse who experienced the decision to divorce as a profound humiliation, an ongoing pattern of intense conflict and litigation, and to the involvement of new partners, extended family or other professionals who purposely or unwittingly contribute to conflict.

If a child perceives that s/he has been abandoned by a parent, that child is vulnerable to become alienated. Feelings of abandonment may occur when a parent leaves the marital home, when a child is seriously confused about the reasons for the separation or divorce, or when a parent begins a new love relationship and devotes less attention to the child. In some cases, separation followed by long periods with no contact between the nonresidential parent and the child can exacerbate the child's sense of abandonment.

Children who were psychologically vulnerable prior to separation often lack the resiliency to cope with the pressures that accompany divorce. Some children find it easier to deal with anxiety and uncertainty by siding with one parent against the other, and thereby securing the preferred parent's loyalty. Children who do have good reality testing may become confused by events they witness or overhear, and are vulnerable to misinterpret or misunderstand their meaning, especially if they cannot discuss these situations with a caring adult who can help them make an independent evaluation of their experience.

Through our work with divorced children and parents, we know that no single factor produces an alienated child, and that these convoluted, difficult situations threaten the psychological well being of each family member. We believe, along with Kelly and Johnston, that a comprehensive assessment is needed to clarify the multiple factors that have led a child to reject a parent with whom s/he previously enjoyed a meaningful relationship. Only with the benefit of such an evaluation, can each pertinent factor be identified and accounted for, and an effective intervention strategy planned and implemented.

یکشنبه 6 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
رابطه بین زیبایی و سطح استروژن

در این پژوهش جالب  زیبایی چیزی بیشتر از ظاهری مناسب  در نظر گرفته شده است. بر اساس این بررسی  بالا بودن سطح استروژن  باعث خصوصیاتی در یک زن می گردد که وی را از دیگران مجزا می سازد  و این تفاوت بعنوان زیبایی در نظر گرفته می شود. متن این پژوهش به شرح زیر می باشد.


The more fertile a woman, the more attractive she is to men, scientists claim today.

For many years, scientists believed that when lovers gaze at each other they are merely using facial clues - large eyes, small nose, large lips and so on - to check that their prospective mate has high "fitness" and can efficiently pass their genes to the next generation.

Keira Knightley

The female sex hormone oestrogen was thought to be the mediator of beauty, which advertises health and fecundity. Now researchers at the University of St Andrews have shown for the first time that women with higher levels of oestrogen do indeed have more attractive faces.

The study, published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences is the first to demonstrate that women's facial appearance is linked to their well-being because oestrogen impacts on women's reproductive health and fertility.

"People have speculated for years that women with more attractive and healthy looking faces have higher oestrogen," said Miriam Law Smith.

Hormones exert most effect on the face during puberty, she said. The principal male sex hormone testosterone causes the jaw and eyebrow ridges to become more prominent and facial hair to grow, making boys' faces grow more than girls'.

The female sex hormone oestrogen prevents the growth of facial bone, reduces the size of the nose and chin, and leads to large eyes, increased thickness of lips and fat deposition in the cheek area, along with hips and buttocks, features that announce that a woman is fertile.

At first sight, the discovery that beauty is more than skin deep suggests that oestrogen injections could boost the attractiveness of a developing female face. However, the way the body would react to an artificial boost is unknown and there would be a downside, as underlined by the risks of hormone replacement therapy. Moreover, today's study shows the effects of hormones are easily masked by the application of make-up.

Because the shape of the face is determined during puberty, boosting oestrogen in later life may improve the appearance of the skin but would not change the face, added Ms Law Smith.

The team photographed 59 young women's faces aged between 18 and 25 and analysed their sex hormone levels. Women with higher levels of oestrogen were rated as more attractive, healthy and feminine looking. Interestingly, no relationship between appearance and oestrogen was found in women wearing make-up. The researchers believe that while make-up improves facial appearance it may be masking cues normally seen in the face.

Ms Law Smith said: "Women are effectively advertising their general fertility with their faces. Our findings could explain why men universally seem to prefer feminine women's faces. In evolutionary terms, it makes sense for men to favour feminine fertile women, those that did would have had more babies."

Earlier this year, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, evidence that very early exposure to sex hormones appears to form a basic facial shape was reported by a team of scientists from Vienna and Germany, including Prof John Manning of the University of Central Lancashire.

The relative length of the index to ring finger - which is linked to exposure to prenatal sex hormones - was found to be associated with face shape by the team in an analysis of more than 100 people.

Exposure to early testosterone, as indicated by finger length patterns, causes male and female faces to look rugged with wide jaws and strong cheekbones whereas exposure to high oestrogen levels makes them appear less robust. This may be because prenatal hormones correlate with levels found at puberty.


یکشنبه 6 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
فروید و روح روانکاوی

در این مقاله به نقش فروید در بنیانگذاری روانکاوی بعنوان یک روش علمی در یافتن اسرار درونی آدمی تاکید شده است. مطالعه این مقاله را به دانشجویان توصیه می نمایم.

Sigmund Freud
and the Spirit of Psychoanalysis

By Jean Chiriac, President of AROPA

Everybody knows today that Sigmund Freud, the famous Viennese neurologist, is the founder of psychoanalysis. But because of the influences of the nowadays psychoanalytical  expression and culture, few still know what Freud thought about the psychoanalysis he had created, what opinion he had regarding the task of psychoanalysis.

To Freud psychoanalysis was a scientific method  for the investigation of our mental life and a psychotherapeutic method.

Being scientific, it borrows from the exigencies of science two fundamental aspects:

- the requirement of observing the studied facts. Unlike religion, which derives its truths from revelations, psychoanalysis extracts them from direct observation;

- the description and  the integration into a theory, the formulation of the rules that contribute to the occurrence and manifestation of the observed facts.

We must remember that psychoanalysis hadn't been revealed to Freud, as a mystical act, but it was based on his (and others') clinical observations, in a step-by-step process.

To Freud  psychoanalysis never stopped to be a therapeutical method. Although it often gave birth to some speculations concerning the cultural, religious facts, etc., in Freud's view psychoanalysis should be restricted to the  theory of neuroses. And to its task to cure mental disorders.

To this we must add the following detail: in Freud's view, the necessity to understand the mysteries of he human behavior was considered the  first and foremost in the psychoanalytical act. More than once Freud stated that is more important to understand than to treat. Of course this vision is shocking for us but it emphasized what is essential  regarding the spirit of psychoanalysis: the fact of interrogating the psychical observed phenomena in order to understand the enigma of the human behavior and, therefore, to cure of, where it is meet and proper. The emphasis on understanding, on knowledge represents the unmistakable  mark of the spirit of psychoanalysis...

Translation by Ochea Corina


یکشنبه 6 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
بررسی بالینی فاکتورهای محیطی ایجاد اختلال هویت جنسی(G.I.D)

بررسی بالینی فاکتورهای محیطی ایجاد اختلال هویت جنسی(G.I.D)
در فضای ارتباطات درون خانوادگی

دکتر محمدرضا ابراهیمی
استاد دانشگاه - متخصص روانشناس بالینی

معمولاً در مراجعان و بیماران مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی متغیرهای متعددی
را در فضای ارتباطات درون خانوادگی و شرایط اولیه رشد مشاهده می‌نمائیم
که در اکثر آنها مشترک می‌باشد و آنان را از دیگران متمایز می‌سازد. این تمایز
این فرض را قوت می‌بخشد که چهارچوب رشد و ارتباطات اولیه کودک می‌تواند کیفیتی را فراهم سازد که به اختلال هویت جنسی بیانجامد. در ادبیات پژوهشی، تأکید اصلی یافته‌ها بر روابط درون خانوادگی و فضای ارتباطات اعضاء خانواده
با یکدیگر در طی دوران کودکی و سالهای اولیه رشد و عوامل مساعد ساز بعدی می‌باشد. در مبتلایان به این اختلال تجربیات اولیه هیجانی و عاطفی بعنوان زمینه‌ساز اصلی در نظر گرفته می‌شود. با ارائة یک مورد بالینی در این پژوهش، تصویر واضحی از این درگیری‌های هیجانی و عاطفی در رابطه با دیگر اعضاء خانواده ارائه شده
و عوامل گوناگون که با قرار گرفتن در کنار یکدیگر به تشکیل فضایی بیمارگونه
که منجر به وقوع این اختلال می‌گردد بررسی شده است.


As Of Part the Process normal gender identity in the family, young children often try out a variety of sex role behavior as they learn to make the fine distinction between masculine and feminine roles in pathological cases, Children deviate from the normal pattern of exploring masculine and feminine behaviors and develop an inflexible, compulsive, persistent and rigidly stereotyped pattern. In this research, the Social environment and family space of the child rearing implicated in the etiology of the psychosexual disturbance. The family variables Correlated with the degree of gender disturbances in the Sample of Subjects that have accumulated, and Comprehensive set of interviews, Personality tests and psychotherapy results were completed . in first step in the anlysis for the families of these children was to focus upon the family relations, primary experiences in childhood, and the male and femal models available to these boys with inadequate masculine of development. Our finding suggedt that the parents gender disturbed boys have an unusual degree of psychological maladjustment. In a large number of instances, no male role model existed during early childhood developmental years in the home whether it be father, father substitute. or older male sibling.
پیشینة پژوهش

بعنوان بخشی از فرآیند هویت جنسی بهنجار در خانواده، کودکان خردسال اغلب گونه‌هایی از رفتارهای مربوط به نقش جنسی را آموخته و تفاوتهای مناسبی بین نقش‌های مردانه و زنانه قائل می‌شوند. بعضی پسران بطور اتفاقی رفتارهایی
از خود نشان می‌دهند که از لحاظ سنتی در فرهنگ ما(امریکا) بعنوان رفتار زنانه تلقی می‌گردد. نظیر دامن پوشیدن، استفاده از لوازم آرایش یا بازی در نقش نگهداری نوزادان. همچنین بسیاری از نوجوانان دختر بطور تصادفی نقش مردانه
را برای خود در نظر گرفته و در نقش پدر بازی می‌کنند. این قبیل اکتشافهای گذرا و دوره‌ای در رفتارهای جنسی در بسیاری از پسران و دختران عادی است و معمولاً در برگیرندة تجربه یادگیری در فرآیند اجتماعی شدن نقش جنسی بهنجار می‌باشد. (مک کوبی،[1]ژاکلین[2]1974، میچل[3]، 1970، ساربین[4]، 1980)

یک پسر با اختلال هویت جنسی یک یا چند طرح زیر را از خود نشان می‌دهد:

1ـ ابراز تمایل برای دختر یا زن بودن

2ـ ابراز اوهام پرورش فرزندان و تغذیه پستانی نوزادان یا تصویر یک
هویت زنانه

3ـ تمایل به نداشتن آلت تناسلی مردانه(روزن[5]، راکرز[6]، 1980)

ادبیات پژوهشی رشد روانی ـ جنسی کودکان بهنجار در خصوص نقش پدر نشان می‌دهد که وی والدی است که رفتارهای مربوط به نقش مردانه او در ایجاد رفتارهای مناسب جنسی در کودکان در واحد خانواده از اهمیت بسزائی برخوردار می‌باشد(مید[7]، راکزبر، 1979). ادبیات پژوهشی در باب اثرات محرومیت والدینی آشکار می‌سازد که فرآیند یادگیری نقش جنسی به هنگام فقدان فیزیقی
یا روانشناختی پدران در خانه بطور معکوس عمل می‌نماید.(بیلر[8]، 1974، هامیلتون[9] 1977)در موارد زیادی از مبتلایان به این اختلال، مدل نقش مردانه
در سالهای رشد کودکی در محیط خانواده وجود نداشته است، از جمله پدر، جانشین پدر یا برادر بزرگتر. در موارد شدید این اختلال این مسأله از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار می‌باشد. در مواردی پدر در خانه حضور داشته است،
اما حضور وی از لحاظ روانشناختی فاقد تأثیر بوده است.(روزن[10]، راکرز[11]، بنتلر[12]،1978).

پدران این پسران معمولاً رفتارهای مربوط به جنس مخالف را در پسران
خود به دیدة اغماض می‌نگرند، اگر چه احساس ناخوشایند درونی از این اغماض خود دارند. این مردان اغلب به سادگی احساس تهدید و بی‌کفایتی می‌کنند و این کیفیات تماس آنها را با پسرانشان که رفتار غیر مردانه آنها را تکرار می‌کنند، مشکل می‌سازد. در مبتلایان به این اختلال، رشد کودکی از الگوی بهنجار اکتشاف رفتارهای مردانه وزنانه انحراف پیدا کرده و الگوهای قالبی غیر قابل انعطاف، اجباری، مداوم و سرسختانه‌ای را در بر می‌گیرد.(زوکر[13]، 1985)

در نقطه مقابل این اختلال، به موارد افراطی رفتارهای فوق مردانه تحریف شده‌ بصورت تهاجم، تخریب، خشونت با دیگران و رفتارهای فاقد ظرافت و کنترل نشد و ناگهانی در پسران برمی‌خوریم.(هارینگتون[14]، 1970). ملاحظه تخصصی برای
این پسران بیش مرد[15]که عیناً کاریکاتور غیر انطباقانه‌ای از مردانگی را نشان می‌دهند ضرورت دارد. جریان متضادی در پسران زن‌صفت مشاهده می‌شود که به طرد مردانگی در خودشان پرداخته و بدان حد اصرار می‌ورزند که انگار آنها دختر هستند یا می‌خواهند مادر باشند و به پرورش فرزندان بپردازند. (راکرز، 1981).
این پسران غالباً از بازی با پسران دیگر اجتناب می‌ورزند، لباسهای دخترانه می‌پوشند، غالباً با دختران به بازی می‌پردازند، به لوازم آرایش و کلاه‌گیس علاقه دارند و رفتارهای قالبی حرکات بازو و راه رفتن و ژستهای زنانه را از خود نشان می‌دهند. این زنانگی پسرانه از انتقال عادی فراتر می‌رود و کنجکاوی در کشف رفتارهای زنانه به ایجاد یک مشکل بالینی منتهی می‌گردد.(راکرز، 1985).

پسران مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی بعنوان جنس مذکر احساس بی‌کفایتی می‌کنند و اغلب در رابطه با پسران همسال خود مشکلاتی دارند.سایر عوامل ویژه در این پسران شامل جذابیت غیر معمول و حساسیت بالا می‌باشد. مادران این پسران اغلب احساس تهدید شدن توسط پرخاشگری مردان را دارند و بدین خاطر از رفتارهای مقابله‌ای و پرخاشگری بهنجار در پسران خود ممانعت بعمل می‌آورند. علاوه بر نیاز شدید آنان به حمایت، مادران اغلب رفتارهای حمایتی نوع زنانه
را در پسرانشان تشویق می‌نمایند.

ممانعت از رفتارهای خشن و سخت، ناتوانی والدین در حذف رفتارهای جنسی مقابل، و در دسترس نبودن والدین در این پسران دیده می‌شود. در دختران هم چنین مکانیسمی را در فضای خانواده در شرایط ناموازی بیش مردانگی و بیش زنانگی غیر انطباقانه در روابط اعضاء می‌بینیم. این مکانیسم در دختران بصورت برعکس پسران به وقوع می‌پیوندد. روابط پدر و دختر و دوری و ناتوانی مادر
از جنبه‌های بسیار مهم بروز این اختلال در دختران می‌باشد. (راکرز[16]، کیلگوس[17]، 1995، راکرز 1995).

یکی از یافته‌های مهم در خانواده‌های پسران مبتلا به اختلال جنسی شیوع مشکلات روانی در اعضاء خانواده است. 80% از مادران و 45% از پدران تاریخچة مشکلات بهداشت روانی و یا درمان‌های روانپزشکی داشته‌اند. این یافته‌ها مشخص می‌کند که والدین این پسران درجات غیر عادی از عدم انطباق روانشناختی
را دارا می‌باشند.

در پسرانی که در طبقة اختلال عمیق هویت جنسی قرار داشتند فقدان پدر
در تمامی موارد مشاهده می‌گردید، در موارد خفیف‌تر ابتلاء اختلال هویت جنسی فقدان پدر در 54% پسران به چشم می‌خورد. بطور کلی تصویر پدران کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی در تقابل جدی با تصویر ایده‌آل پدری است که مردانگی
را به واسطة حضور روانشناختی و فیزیکی خود ارتقاء می‌دهد. (مید[18]، راکرز، 1979).

از لحاظ آماری در مقایسه با خانواده‌های بهنجار، نبود الگوی مردانه
در خانواده‌های افراد مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی معنادار می‌باشد. در پژوهشی مشخص گردید که از 46 آزمون مبتلا به این اختلال 37 نفر مدل نقش مردانه
در جریان رشد در خانه نداشته‌اند.(راکرز[19]، مید[20]، روزن[21]، برنیگهام[22]، 1983).

پژوهش‌های بسیاری، عدم حضور مدل نقش مردانه در طی دوران رشد پسران مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی از جمله پدر، جانشین پدر یا برادر بزرگتر را تأیید نموده‌اند. فقدان مدلهای نقش مردانه که با آنها همانندسازی شود از مشخصه‌های پسران زن‌صفتی است که شدیداً دچار آشفتگی هستند. در مواردی هم که پدر
یا جانشین پدر در خانه حضور دارد، معمولاً از لحاظ روانشناختی از دیگر اعضاء خانواده فاصله دوری دارد.

در پژوهشی مشخص گردید که 67% از پدران زیستی در این پسران بطور فیزیکی از خانه غایب بوده‌اند، 100% پدران در پسران مبتلا به درجه شدید
این اختلال از خانه غایب بوده‌اند، 54% از پدران پسرانی که دچار درجه خفیف‌تر این اختلال بوده‌اند در خانه حضور نداشته‌اند.

میانگین سن پسران در زمان جدائی پدر از خانواده سه و نیم سال بوده و 80% پسران در سن پنج سالگی یا کمتر قرار داشته‌اند.دلایل جدائی پدر در 82% موارد مشکلات زناشویی و یا طلاق، 10% مرگ پدر، 8% تولد بدون داشتن پدر قانونی اعلام شده است.(راکرز، 1995)

گزارش یک مـورد
مراجع: 20ساله ـ مذکر ـ تحصیلات اول راهنمایی ـ مجرد

علت مراجعه خود را اینگونه شرح می‌دهد:

…… خیلی سخت می‌گذرد، روحیه‌ام خراب است. هر چه می‌خواهم فرار کنم نمی‌توانم، این احساس را نمی‌توانم فراموش کنم. از قبل از دبستان این احساس را داشته‌ام، احساس می‌کردم که دختر هستم. دوست داشتم که دختر باشم. پدرم از زن اولش سه دختر دارد، از مادرم هم چهار تا پسر و دو تا دختر دارد. من فرزند دوم هستم. یک خواهر از من بزرگتر است و یکی کوچکتر. مادرم سیزده ساله بوده که ازدواج کرده است. پدرم پیر است 75 سال سن دارد. مادرم 39 ساله است.

پدر و مادر:

پدرم خیلی خوب بوده است. به من خیلی توجه می‌کرده است. چون من پشت سر پنج تا خواهر بودم. اولین پسر محسوب می‌شوم بخاطر این به من زیاد توجه می‌کردند. هر چه می‌خواستم برایم فراهم می‌شده است. رفتار مادرم بسیار خوب بوده است. با من خیلی مهربان بود، به من محبت می‌کرد و من را خیلی دوست داشت. اگر ناراحت بودم او هم ناراحت می‌شد، اگر خوشحال بودم او هم خوشحال می‌شد. در 27 سالگی من را باردار شده است. مادرم خیلی دلسوز است، اگر یک نفر غریبه هم که باشد دلش می‌سوزد، خود من هم همین جوری هستم، می‌گویند به مادرت رفته‌ای، یک فیلم ناراحت کننده که نشان می‌دهند ناراحت می‌شود و گریه می‌کنم.

وضعیت تحصیلی:

تا پنجم درسم خوب بود. نمره‌هایم همیشه 20 بود. مدرسه ما مختلط بود پسرها با دخترها درس می‌خواندند. من دوست داشتم که همیشه کنار دخترها بنشینم
و با آنها بازی کنم. خودم را مثل آنها می‌دانستم. از پسرها خوشم نمی‌آمد، راهنمایی که رفتم دخترها از پسرها جدا شدند. من هم از مدرسه فرار می‌کردم. دوست داشتم توی مدرسه دخترانه درس بخوانم. دوست داشتم که از پسرها دور باشم.

شرح حال کامل:

مراجع جزئیات زندگی خود را اینگونه بیان می‌کند:

….. پسری هستم 20 ساله که در این بیست سال تنها آرزوی من این بوده که دختر باشم. من از کوچکی با دخترها بازی می‌کردم، چون دوست نداشتم که با پسر بچه‌ها بازی کنم. من احساس می‌کردم که دختر هستم. من به خانه همسایه می‌رفتم و لباسهای دختر آنها را به تن می‌کردم. پدر و مادرم خیلی ناراحت می‌شدند و من هم چاره‌ای نداشتم چون احساسی داشتم که نمی‌توانستم آن را فراموش کنم.
با خودم می‌گفتم دیگر از این کارها نمی‌کنم که پدر و مادرم ناراحت بشوند
ولی دوباره تکرار می‌شد. وقتی به مدرسه می‌رفتم بیشتر با دخترها ارتباط برقرار می‌کردم و با آنها به بازی می‌رفتم و با آنها درس می‌خواندم البته برای اینکه
ما روستایی بودیم و دخترها و پسرها در یک کلاس بودند و من بیشتر دوست داشتم تا با دخترها درس بخوانم. وقتی دختری را می‌دیدم که لباس زنانه پوشیده
من خیلی دوست داشتم که آن لباس‌های زنانه تنم باشد. وقتی کلاس پنجم را تمام کردم، دخترها از ما جدا شدند، دیگر دوست نداشتم درس بخوانم چون من پیش پسرها نمی‌توانستم درس بخوانم چون خودم را دختر احساس می‌کردم و از بچه‌ها خجالت می‌کشیدم. دیگر درس توی مغزم نرفت و در کلاس اول راهنمایی مردود شدم. سال‌ بعد دوباره به مدرسه رفتم ولی درسم خوب نبود. وقتی معلمی
به کلاسمان می‌آمد من عاشق او می‌‌‌‌شدم و دوست داشتم که با او عروسی کنم.
آن سال قبول شدم و به کلاس دوم را هنمایی رفتم، هر چه که بزرگتر می‌شدم احساس دختر بودنم زیادتر می‌شد و من هر روز از مدرسه فرار می‌کردم به خانه یکی از آشنایان می‌رفتم و لباسهای زنانه می‌پوشیدم و آرایش می‌کردم
و با دخترهای آن خانه بیرون می‌رفتم و گردش می‌کردم و خیلی هم خوشحال بودم. از همان وقت عصبی شدم و شروع کردم به قلیان کشیدن. برای اینکه
به آن خانه بروم و لباسهای زنانه بپوشم، 300 هزار تومان پول از پدرم دزدیدم
و به آنها دادم تا بگذارند که به خانه آنها بروم و لباسهای زنانه بپوشم. پدر و مادرم من را به مدرسه می‌بردند من هم از مدرسه فرار می‌کردم، ترک تحصیل کردم.
من را بردند دکتر، من توی دلم خوشحال شدم می‌گفتم شاید این آزمایشها ثابت کند من دختر هستم اما دکتر گفت این سالم است….. هر کس که عروسی می‌کرد من آرزو می‌کردم که به جای او عروس باشم و همیشه می‌رفتم جای خلوت
و گریه می‌کردم و به خدا می‌گفتم خدایا چرا من نباید دختر باشم، چرا من را دختر نکردی که با مرد عروسی کنم، که ظرف بشویم، که غذا درست کنم . آرایش کنم
و با زنها حرف بزنم و حامله شوم و بچه بیاورم…. بعد من عاشق مردی شدم
و با او ارتباط برقرار کردم، دوست داشتم همیشه پیش او باشم ولی فقط شبها
او را می‌دیدم، چون او می‌خواست کسی ما را نبیند و شبها می‌آمد و مثل عروس
و داماد با هم حرف می‌زدیم. خیلی خوشحال بودم، خودم را همسر آن مرد احساس می‌کردم تا اینکه آن مرد نامزدی کرد و رفت، ناامید شدم و گریه می‌کردم و با خودم می‌گفتم هیچ مردی پیدا نمی‌شود که با من ارتباط برقرار کند. چند ماه بعد با پسری یار شدم و با او ارتباط برقرار کردم، شب و روز با هم بودیم، همیشه آرزو می‌کردم که دختر شوم و با او ازدواج کنم، بیشتر آرایش می‌کردم چون می‌گفتم آن پسر شوهر من است و باید قشنگتر باشم. وقتی آن پسر به دختری نگاه می‌کرد من ناراحت می‌شدم می‌گفتم آن دختر از من قشنگتر است و او دیگر من را دوست ندارد، می‌گفتم با آن دختر یار می‌شود و دیگر من را نمی‌خواهد، چند بار با آن پسر قهر کردم چون نگاه به دخترها می‌کرد ولی دوباره به او آشتی می‌کردم. چهار سال
با آن پسر یار بودم و به خانه آنها می‌رفتم. برای او هدیه می‌گرفتم، خانواده آنها خیلی فقیر بودند و من به آنها کمک کردم تا اینکه یک روز آن پسر عاشق یک دختر شد و من دوباره ناامید شدم و از او جدا شدم. او را خیلی نفرین می‌کردم، چهار سال با او بودم و سختی کشیدم و انتظار کشیدم و خیلی چیزها را تحمل کردم، پول توی جیبم را به او می‌دادم ولی دلم را شکست. حالا خیلی ناامید هستم و دیگر هیچ مردی نیست که من را بخواهد و با من یار شود، از مردها خجالت می‌کشم، دوست دارم با زنها حرف بزنم و آرایش کنم، لباس بپوشم، غذا درست کنم. هر وقت خانواده‌ام به مهمانی می‌روند من با آنها نمی‌روم چون دوست دارم
با مردی عروسی کنم و به مهمانی بروم….

چند بار خواستم خودکشی کنم که موفق نشدم، دوباره روی خودم نفت ریختم، یکبار 50 عددقرص خوردم، و حالا هم تا می‌توانم قلیان می‌کشم تا دلم ساکت شود….. وقتی راه می‌روم خودم را دختر احساس می‌کنم، وقتی مرد قشنگی رامی‌بینم مهرش به دلم می‌نشیند ولی خجالت می‌کشم که به او بگویم که دوستت دارم…. برای خودم رؤیاهایی ساخته‌ام، توی رؤیا من دختری هستم زیبا که با مردی که دوست دارم ازدواج می‌کنم و حامله می‌شوم و بچه به دنیا می‌آورم، دوست دارم رؤیاهایم به حقیقت بپیوندند این آرزو به دلم مانده است، می‌ترسم دختر نشوم و از این دنیا بروم.

هر وقت کسی به من می‌گوید: چرا زن نمی‌گیری آتش می‌گیرم، چون دوست ندارم با یک زن ازدواج کنم. دوست دارم دختر باشم و با مرد ازدواج کنم.

دوست دارم موهای بلند داشته باشم و لباسهای زنانه تنم باشد….. وقتی مهمان‌داریم من داخل اتاقی که مردها نشسته‌اند نمی‌روم چون خجالت می‌کشم
و پیش زنها می‌نشینم….. اگر دکتری پیدا شود که من را بتواند دختر کند من جانم را فدایش می‌کنم… من حاضرم از سر تا پایم را بشکافند ولی دختر بشوم…
ای دکترها شماها را قسم می‌دهم به خدای بزرگ، به پاکدامنی فاطمه زهرا، من
را نجات بدهید، من را به آرزویم برسانید، من را دختر کنید. هر چه بخواهید
به شما می‌دهم حتی جانم را… خدایا دل ناامیدم را امیدوار کن… خدایا قسمت می‌دهم دل من را نشکنی… دخترم کن.

نتایج آزمون رور شـاخ:

1ـ تفسیرهای پارانوئیدی در ارتباطات بین فردی

2ـ اضطراب منتشر همراه با وسواسهای فکری و عملی

3ـ دلهره جدایی از مادر

4ـ اوهام خود شیفتگی در رابطه با تن و توانمندیهای ذهنی همراه با تردید و دوگانگی

5ـ دلهره از سقوط و شکست و ناتونانی

6ـ تعارضات شدید جنسی به همراه اوهام همجنس گرایانه و مفعولانه
تفسیر رؤیاها

1ـ ترس از شکست و ناتوانی تقریباً در تمامی رؤیاهای مراجع تکرار شده است به شکل پرت شدن از کوه ـ غرق شدن در آب ـ سقوط در چاه و …

2ـ وابستگی به دیگران و ترس از جدایی با رؤیاهایی نظیر کمک خواستن، فرارهای همراه با اضطراب و خشونت، صحنه‌های مکرر همراهی با دیگران و…

3ـ در رؤیاها دیگران هم او را می‌پذیرند و هم از او دور می‌شوند. تعارض
در روابط با دیگران از مشخصه‌های غالب رؤیاهای وی تلقی می‌گردید.

4ـ رؤیاهای جنسی بصورت نمایش و تظاهر رفتارهای جنس مخالف در خود انعکاس میل و آرزوی ناخود آگاه وی است.

بحث و نتیجه‌گیری و ارائه یافته‌ها:

نتایج حاصله از بررسی این مورد نشان می‌دهد که اختلال هویت جنسی نشأت گرفته از ارتباطات درون خانواده با یکدیگر و همچنین چهارچوب وکیفیت ابراز این ارتباطات در فضای روابط درو ن خانوادگی و در طی سالهای رشد می‌باشد.

افراد مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی همچون آینه‌ای به انعکاس تصویر ویژه
در وندادها و درون فکنی‌ها و علائم شناور در فضای تعاملات با دیگران در جریان زندگی و در دوران کودکی و نوجوانی خود می‌پردازند.

نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که در این اختلال درون فکنی انزجار از مرد بودن یا زن بودن به شکل برون‌ نمائی علائم اختلال هویت جنسی نمودار می‌گردد.

در طی جلسات رواندرمانی با مبتلایان به این اختلال پیگیری یک علامت ارگانیک بیهوده است. همانگونه که در ادبیات پژوهشی ذکر گردید هویت جنسی کودک در دوران حساس اولیه رشد و در ارتباط با افراد خانواده از جنس‌های مختلف شکل می‌گیرد. نارضایتی فرد از جنسیت خود در حقیقت درون فکنی انزجار از مرد بودن یا زن بودن است که در فضای ارتباطات اعضاء خانواده شکل گرفته و به شکل برون نمائی علائم اختلال هویت جنسی نمودار می‌گردد.

یافته‌های این پژوهش به تأیید پژوهش قبلی می‌پردازد که در آنها به اختلال
در روابط فرد با والدین و چگونگی تعاملات ناقص و آسیب‌زای خانواده اشاره داشته‌اند. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که سیستم ارتباطی اعضاء خانواده افراد مبتلا به این اختلال تفاوت اساسی با سیستم ارتباطی اعضاء خانواده‌های بهنجار دارد. مهمترین این تفاوتها به شرح زیر می‌باشد:

1ـ سن پدران معمولاً بالا می‌باشد. پیری پدر تعاملات و کنش‌های عاطفی
و هیجانی ضروری برای رشد بهنجار را به حداقل می‌رساند.

2ـ پدر معمولاً در فضای ارتباطات عاطفی درون خانواده فاقد حضور
یا تأثیرگذاری می‌باشد.

3ـ تفاوت سنی زیاد بین پدر و مادر وجود دارد. سن مادر معمولاً بسیار کمتر
از سن پدر می‌باشد.

4ـ تسلط عاطفی وهیجانی مادر بر فرزندان بسیار بارز و چشمگیر است. فرآیند خود پیروی به دگر پیروی، مسیر بهنجاری را طی نمی‌کند. مادر بعنوان نقطه تمرکز پیروی این فرآیند محسوب شده و همانندسازی با او شکل می‌گیرد.

5ـ ترتیب تولد، تک فرزند بودن، تک پسر بودن در میان چند دختر و بالعکس، شدت آسیب را بیشتر می‌سازد.

6ـ نزذیکی و مراوده افراطی با جنس مخالف و همچنین تجربیات جنسی زودرس بسیار شایع می‌باشد. بعبارت دیگر در تاریخچة افراد مبتلا به این اختلال حضور دیگر اعضاء جنس مخالف بسیار پررنگ و تأثیرگذار بوده است.

7ـ وضعیت ظاهری این افراد و عکس العمل اطرافیان به وضعیت ظاهری آنها به نحوی تشدید کننده نارضایتی از جنسیت می‌باشد، معمولاً پسران مبتلا به اختلال هویت جنسی ظاهری دخترانه، ظریف و شکننده دارند.

1-Biller,H.B. parental Deprirvation, Lexington, Mass, D.C.Health, 1974

2-Harrington,c.c. Errors in sex – role Behavior in teenage boys. New york, Teachers college press, 1970

3-Mead, s.l., Rekers, G.A. The role of the father in normal psycho – sexual development. Psychlogical Reports, 1979

4-Maccoby,E.E., Jackline, C.N., The psychology of sex Differences. Stanford university Press, 1974

5-Mischel,w. sex – typing and socialization In P.H. Mussev(E.D), child psychology, Third Edition, vol 11. New york, wiley, 1970

6-Rekers, G.A.(Editor), Family Buiding: Six Qualitive of a strong Family. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1985

7-Rekers, G.A, Kilgus M., Diffrential diagnosis and Retional for treatment of gender Identity disorder and transvestism. New york: Lexington, Books of M.c millans, 1995

8-Rekers, G.A., Mead S.L., Rosen A.C., Bringham, s.l. Family correlates of Male chidhood gender disturbance. Journal of genetic Psychology, 1983

9-Reckers, G.A., Bentaler, P.M. sex role stereotype and professional intervention for childhood gender disturbances. Professional psychology, 1973

10-Reckers, G.A. childhood sexual identity disorder. Medical Aspects of Haman sexuality 1987

11-Reckers G.A., Handbook of child and Adolescent sexual problems, New york, Ny: Lexingtion, schuster, 1995

12-Rosen. A.C., Reckers, G.A. Toward a taxonomic framework for varibles of sex and gender. Gentic psychology Monographs 1980

13-Serbin, L.A. Sex Role Socialization: A field in transition. B.B.Lahey and A.E kazdin, Advances in chinical child psychology, volume three. New york: plenume publishing corp. , 1980 p: 41- 96

14- Zucker, K.J. Cross- gender identity children. Chapter 4 in B.W. steiner(E.D.), Gender dysphoria : Development, Research, Management. New york: plenum publishing, corp, 1985

یکشنبه 6 فروردین‌ماه سال 1385
سلام و تبریک سال نو
دکتر ابراهیمی هستم. تخصص من در روانشناسی و رواندرمانی می باشد . بزودی مطالب زیادی در این وبلاگ منتشر خواهم کرد

برای عضویت در خبرنامه این وبلاگ نام کاربری خود در سیستم بلاگ اسکای را وارد کنید
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تعداد بازدیدکنندگان : 177850

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